Niklas Höhne, a climate scientist and founder of the New Climate Institute in Germany, said Turkey was “outside” the list of countries that have yet to ratify the agreement. The country`s announcement means that there are now eleven countries that have yet to formally ratify the agreement. Angola, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, South Sudan, Suriname and Yemen are being visited. Turkey and three major oil-exporting nations are among seven countries that have yet to ratify the 2015 Paris climate agreement. Angola joined Kyrgyzstan and Lebanon and ratified it in 2020, meaning the agreement was formally approved by 190 out of 197 countries. Although it is not officially called a “ratification,” the government said in a statement that the decree signifies Russia`s adoption of the agreement and “Russia`s approval of obligations under the Paris Agreement.” The agreement has been signed by 196 countries and aims to mitigate the effects of climate change by reducing carbon emissions and limiting the increase in global temperature to less than 2 degrees Celsius. Angola was the last country to ratify the climate agreement on 12 August 2020. Kyrgyzstan was ratified on 18 February and Lebanon on 5 February. The decision to ratify the Paris Agreement by a government order and not by a parliamentary vote could reflect the opposition of many officials to such environmental measures.
International agreements are initially signed to signal their intention to comply, but they become binding only through ratification. It may be an act of Parliament or another formal adoption. Different countries have different processes. Former US President Barack Obama used controversial executive powers to ratify the Paris Agreement in 2016. On August 19, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced that the country`s government had taken the decision to join the agreement and made very serious commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 75% of 1990 levels over the next few years and to reach a level of 70% by 2030. These serious commitments require a substantial reconstruction of the entire Russian economy. A government source told AFP that the document was “the last step in the procedure for the Russian adoption of the Paris Agreement”. The Eiffel Tower in Paris, lit in green, around the entry into force of the Paris Agreement, the most ambitious agreement in history on climate change, on the 4th.